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New Calculators for The Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators

The Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators lists over 1,500 models of early pocket calculators from over 220 companies.

If you have an early pocket calculator (from the 1970s with LED, vacuum fluorescent, discharge, or early LCD display, and battery powered) which is not in The Collector's Guide, please email the details as in the list below for inclusion here.

Details for each calculator are required in the format used in the book, and below:
Manufacturer or Trading Company, Model Name or Number (there may be more than one), Functions, Display Type, Battery type (and if rechargeable), Size, Country of Manufacture, any Interesting Features.

A small frontal photograph (jpeg format, about 600 pixels max dimension) of each would be useful and will be included with the details if of good quality.
Please email with details.

New Calculators

Latest Update - latest additions have the date added.

Go to  E   F   G   H   I




Edmund Scientific (U.S. mail-order scientific instrument and component company)

Eiko (See Unitrex)

Elcon (Waterloo, New South Wales, Australia)

Eldorado (U.S. company)

Electronic Readout Systems

Elektronika (Russian manufacturer. Some of these models were manufactured into the 1990s.)

Elektronska idustrija-Nis (Yugoslavian company)

Elite (European market calculator)

Elka (Bulgarian company. Most calculators available in different colours.)

Elorg (Electronorgtechnika, USSR company, made in USSR, very similar to models made by General Instruments of Canada (see General EZ2000). Possibly USSR company purchased molds and equipment after General quit calculator business.)

Elwro (Mera-Elwro, Polish company)

Eltex (German company)

EMG (believed to be Elektronikus Merokeszulekek Gyara. a Hungarian company)


Enterprex (U.S. company)


ERS (Electronic Readout Systems Inc.)

Exactra (See the Exactra models by Texas Instruments)


Execucal (Made in USA by Metronics Laboratories Inc., Wappingers Falls, NY)



Excelmate (European market calculator)



Faber-Castell (German company. All models have a distinctive horizontal design, some with a slide-rule mounted on the rear.)

Facit (Swedish calculator company)


FactFinder (there is no information available about this company, if you have any information please get in touch)

Federal (Euro market)

Felix (made by ICE (╬ntreprinderea de Calculatoare Electronice - "the Electronic Calculator Plant"), Bucharest, Romania)

Fi-Cord (Fi-Cord International, Didsbury, Manchester, England. British marketing company)



Ford Motor Credit Company Ltd.


Friden (See Singer)



Galfa (Galleries Lafayette, department store in Paris, France)


Geller (Geller (Business Equipment) Ltd., UK marketing company)

Gemini (Made by Newlyn Electronics, Penzance, U.K. There appears to have been a connection between this company and Emihus Microcomponents Ltd. If you have any information about this please get in touch.)

General (General/Teknika) (The General Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan. Marketed in Europe)

General Electric (GE) (Sold by Australian General Electric (Appliances) Pty. Limited. Most are similar to Omron models.)

General Instrument (Canadian company)


Gillette (U.S. company)






Great (NEC (Nippon Electric Company), Japan)

Gross (Brighton, England)



Hanimex (Australian based company. On one calculator label it says "Hanimex Group Companies: Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, U.K., U.S.A., West Germany".)


Hapco (Hapco Inc., Boulder, Colardo, U.S.A.)

Hardy (We have no information about this company. If you have any details please get in touch).

Harvard (We have no information about this company. If you have any details please get in touch).

Hatra (We have no information about this company. If you have any details please get in touch).

Heathkit (U.S. company, calculators assembled from kits)

Hewlett-Packard (U.S. company) (there are details of all vintage Hewlett Packard calculators at

Hiradastechnika SzovetKezet (Hungarian company)

Hitachi (Japanese company)

Homeland (Marketed by Toshiba Business Machine Co., Ltd., a company in the Toshiba group.)

Hornet (Great Wall Electronic Co., Taiwan. European market.)#

House of Fraser (British company - used deer head logo. All calculators made by Rockwell.)

Hughes Aircraft (U.S. company)

Hugin (European market calculator)




Iain Jones International (Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. The operating manual for the Mini says "American made for international trade".)



ICP (International Consumer Products Ltd., U.S. company)


IME (Industria Macchine Elettroniche, Italian company)

Imperial (Imperial Typewriter Company, England, was a division of Litton Industries).


Instru (marketed by Instrumentariun Oy, Finland)

International Calculator Corporation

Internationale Internationale Warenhausgruppe (International Warehouse Group, German company)

Interton (German company, most calculators made in Germany).

Invicta (British company)

I.T.C. (No information available about this company, if you have any information please get in touch)

ITT (International Telephone & Telegraph, U.S. company)



Click to go to :
Calculator Book Addendum A-B
Calculator Book Addendum C-D
Calculator Book Addendum J-O
Calculator Book Addendum P-R
Calculator Book Addendum S
Calculator Book Addendum T-Z


Key to Abbreviations

4-funct = 4 basic mathematical functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
sci-funct = scientific or engineering functions (logarithmic and trigonometric functions such as log, sine, and cosine and usually memory, square, pi, etc.)
mem = memory
% = percent function
exp = exponent
paren = parentheses
pi = pi value
recip = reciprocal
sgn chg = sign change
sq rt = square root
sq funct = square functions (including square and square root)

Battery Type:
button rep batt = very small, disk-shaped, replaceable batteries commonly termed button-types, used mainly in LCD models.
rep batt = replaceable batteries (such as 9V, AA, C, and N batteries)
rep batt pack = replaceable batteries in a removable pack
sealed batt = rechargeable batteries sealed in the case
sealed batt pack = rechargeable batteries in a removable pack

Display Type:
See the section on Calculator Displays for more detailed information.
Displays have 8 digits unless specified otherwise.

COS-LCD = Early Liquid Crystal Display from Sharp showing silver digits on a dark background. COS stands for Crystal on Substrate. This display was used as early as October 1973 but eventually was phased out.
fluor = see VFD.
Gas discharge = Display containing all digits sealed in a single package employing  gas discharge to generate light in the same way as a neon lamp. Normally give amber- or orange-colored digits, and typified by the Panaplex® used by a few calculator manufacturers.
LCD = Liquid Crystal Display, a flat, gray-digit type of display type that uses less power and was embraced by calculator makers by the end of the 1970s. Early versions (used in the early 1970s) by Rockwell and Sharp are included in this guide.
LED = Light Emitting Diode display (usually red although sometimes a purple filter was used to color the display). LEDs often have small half bubble-like covers over the digits. tube or mini-tube = separate vacuum or fluorescent tube for each digit of display.
Yellow LCD = Early LCDs had a reliability problem with ultra-violet light and manufacturers used a yellow-colored filter over the normally gray display to remedy that. Refinements in later LCD designs removed the need for the filter.
VFD = Vacuum Fluorescent Display. Display containing all digits sealed in a single tube generating light from an electrical discharge onto a fluorescent material. The color of the digits is normally green or blue, or somewhere in between.

Other Information:
Klixon keypad = Texas Instruments Klixon® keypad was one of the earliest keypads and used greatly by Bowmar and a few other early calculator makers. It had the four basic functions and used metal key pads about 1/2" square.
Japan (for example) = country of manufacture as stated on calculator
RPN = Reverse Polish Notation, a method of calculating and user data entry used by HP calculators. A few other manufacturers also used RPN in more limited scale.
"aka" (also known as) is used when there is another name or model variation on the calculator.
"c" (for example, c1973) is used as "circa," denoting at approximately that time.


A big thanks to Thomas Brockmeier, Richard Brooks, Andrew Davie, Larry Gilbert, Niels Grot, Palmer Hanson, Steve Haynes, Robert King, Kent King, Jeff Lane, Philippe Leckler, Ken Meine, Bob Patton, James Redin, and CB Wilson for their help.


How to Buy the Book!!!!

Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators

by Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm

This 204 page, softcover book is the world's most comprehensive listing of electronic pocket calculators from the 1970's, the so-called Golden Age of Pocket Calculators. Over 1,500 known calculators are detailed with information on features, size, display type, power type, and pricing. In addition, when known, the listing also contains date of sales, original pricing, and country of origin information.

The book features over 470 photographs of various models from over 240 manufacturers around the world (including calculators from lesser-known companies in England, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Bulgaria, and Russia).

"The Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators" includes a comprehensive value guide to help you gauge rarity and desirability of the various models -- especially as they relate to each other.

The book can be purchased for $23.95 plus $4 for USA first class mailing ($2 for US mailing via slower book rate, $6 for first class mailing to Canada and Mexico, and $8 for airmail to other countries). California residents please add $1.86 state sales tax.


As a special offer, mention this page (newcalc1) and deduct $4 off the price of the book. This offer is only valid if you mention this page. We're trying to see how many people actually read this. If you do, it is a great way to get a great price on a great book!!

Mail to:
Wilson/Barnett Publishing
P.O. Box 345, Tustin, CA 92781-0345, USA
For additional information, contact co-author Guy Ball for additional details and purchase information.


Copyright ©1997 Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, ©2002-2019 Nigel Tout

Vintage Calculators

© Text & photographs copyright Nigel Tout   2000-2018  except where noted otherwise.